The articles below have some very useful info about car batteries – what makes them work, what makes them stop working and how to keep them in tip-top condition. Before buying a new expensive battery for your ride, consider re-conditioning (see banner link above and at side):
What Causes Car Batteries to Fail?
Driving habits rather than battery defect are often the cause of battery failure.
A manufacturer in Germanyy of luxury cars reveals that of 400 car batteries returned under warranty, 200 are working well and have no problem. Low charge and acid stratification are the most common causes of the apparent failure. The car manufacturer says that the problem is more common on large luxury cars offering power-hungry auxiliary options than on the more basic models.
In Japan, battery failure is the largest complaint among new car owners. The average car is only driven 13 km (8 miles) per day and mostly in a congested city. As a result, the batteries will never get fully charged and sulfation occurs. The batteries in Japanese cars are small and only provide enough power to crank the engine and perform some rudimentary functions. North America may be shielded from these battery problems, in part because of long distance driving.
Good battery performance is important because problems during the warranty period tarnish customer satisfaction. Any service requirement during that time is recorded and the number is published in trade magazines. This data is of great interest among prospective car buyers throughout the world.
Battery malfunction is seldom caused by a factory defect; driving habits are the more common culprits. Heavy accessory power when driving short distance prevents a periodic fully saturated charge that is so important for the longevity of a lead acid battery. According to a leading European manufacturer of car batteries, factory defects amounts to less than 7 percent.
The battery remains a weak link and the breakdowns on 1.95 million vehicles six years or less are as follows:
15% flat tire
7% fuel injection
6% heating & cooling
6% fuel system
A breakdown due to the battery remains the number one cause.
* Source ADAC 2008 for the year 2007
Cheap Car Batteries Birmingham AL 35203 – Acid stratification, a problem with luxury cars
A common cause of battery failure is acid stratification. The electrolyte on a stratified battery concentrates on the bottom, causing the upper half of the cell to be acid poor. This effect is similar to a cup of coffee in which the sugar collects on the bottom when the waitress forgets to bring the stirring spoon. Batteries tend to stratify if kept at low charge (below 80%) and never have the opportunity to receive a full charge. Short distance driving while running windshield wiper and electric heaters contributes to this. Acid stratification reduces the overall performance of the battery.
Figure 1 illustrates a normal battery in which the acid is equally distributed form top to bottom. This battery provides good performance because the correct acid concentration surrounds the plates. Figure 2 shows a stratified battery in which the acid concentration is light on top and heavy on the bottom. A light acid limits plate activation, promotes corrosion and reduces performance. High acid concentration on the bottom, on the other hand, artificially raises the open circuit voltage. The battery appears fully charged but provides a low CCA. High acid concentration also promotes sulfation and decreases the already low conductivity further. If unchecked, such a condition will eventually lead to battery failure.
Figure 1: Normal battery
The acid is equally distributed from the top to the bottom in the cell and provides maximum CCA and capacity.
Figure 2: Stratified battery
The acid concentration is light on top and heavy on the bottom. High acid concentration artificially raises the open circuit voltage. The battery appears fully charged but has a low CCA. Excessive acid concentration induces sulfation on the lower half of the plates.
Allowing the battery to rest for a few days, applying a shaking motion or tipping the unit over tends to correct the problem. A topping charge by which the 12-volt battery is brought up to 16 volts for one to two hours also reverses the acid stratification. The topping charge also reduces sulfation caused by high acid concentration. Careful attention is needed to keep the battery from heating up and losing excessive electrolyte through hydrogen gassing. Always charge the battery in a well-ventilated room. Accumulation of hydrogen gas can lead to an explosion. Hydrogen is odorless and can only be detected with measuring devices.
The challenge of battery testing
During the last 20 years, battery testing lagged behind other technologies. The reason: the battery is a very difficult animal to test, short of applying a full charge, discharge and recharge. The battery behaves similar to us humans. We still don’t know why we perform better on certain days than others.
Even by using highly accurate charge and discharge equipment, lead acid batteries produce disturbingly high capacity fluctuations on repetitive measurements. To demonstrate the variations, Cadex tested 91 car batteries with diverse performance levels (Figure 3). We first prepared the batteries by giving them a full charge and a 24-hour rest period. We then measured the capacity by applying a 25A discharge to 10.50V or 1.75V/cell (black diamonds).
This procedure was repeated for a second time and the resulting capacities were plotted (purple squared). This produced a whooping +/-15% variation in capacity readings across the full population. Some batteries had higher readings the second time; others were lower. Other chemistries appear to be more consistent in capacity readings than lead acid.
Figure 3: Capacity fluctuations. Capacities of 91 car batteries measured with a conventional discharge method show a fluctuation of +/-15%.
From the beginning, load testers have been the standard test method for car batteries. The year 1992 brought us AC conductance, a method that simplified battery testing. Now we are experimenting with multi-model electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in a portable version at an affordable price.
Getting a fast and dependable assessment of a failing battery is difficult. Most battery testers in use only take cold cranking amps (CCA) and voltage readings. Capacity, the most important measurement of a battery, is unavailable. While taking the CCA reading alone is relatively simple, measuring the capacity is very complex and instruments offering this feature are expensive.
The Spectro CA-12 by Cadex Electronics is the first in a series of high-end battery testers capable of measuring capacity, CCA and state-of-charge (SoC) in a single, non-invasive test. The technology is based on multi-model electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The system injects 24 excitation frequencies ranging from 20 to 2000 Hertz. The sinusoidal signals are regulated at 10mV/cell to remain within the thermal battery voltage of lead acid. This achieves stable readings for small and large batteries.
During the 30-second test, over 40 million transactions are completed. A patented algorithm analyses the data and the final results are displayed in capacity, CCA and state-of-charge.
EIS is very complex and until recently required dedicated computers and expensive laboratory equipment, not to mention chemists and engineers to interpret the readings. The hardware of a full EIS system is commonly mounted on racks and the installation runs into tens of thousands of dollars.
The tough choice
No battery tester solves all problems. Entry-level testers are low cost, simple to use and capable of servicing a broad range of batteries. However, these units only provide a rough indication of the battery condition. A lab test at Cadex demonstrates that a battery tester based on EIS is four times more accurate in detecting weak batteries than AC conductance. Conventional testers often misjudge the battery on account of low state-of-charge. Many batteries are replaced when they should have been recharged, while others are given a clean bill of health when it should have been replaced.
Acid stratification is difficult to measure, even with the EIS technology. Non-invasive testers simply take a snapshot, average the measurements and spit out the results. Stratified batteries tend to show higher state-of-charge readings because of elevated voltage. On preliminary tests, the Spectro CA-12 also shows slightly higher CCA and capacity readings than normal. After letting the battery rest, the capacity tends to normalize. This may be due to diffusion effects in the stratified as a result of resting. Little information is available on how long a stratified battery needs to rest to improve the condition, other than to note that higher temperatures will hasten the diffusion process.
Ideally, a battery tester should indicate the level of acid stratification; sulfation, surface charge and other such condition and display how to correct the problem. This feature is not yet possible. Much research is being done in finding a solution that offers a more complete battery evaluation without the need for a full discharge. The knowledge gained on lead acid batteries can then be applied to other battery systems, such as traction, military, marine, aviation and stationary batteries.
Battery Basics: A Layman’s Guide to Batteries
Battery Basics Tutorial
If you have done any research on how batteries work or what you should look for when selecting a battery, you are probably buried in information, some of which is conflicting. At BatteryStuff, we aim to clear that up a bit.You have most likely heard the term K.I.S.S. (Keep It Simple, Stupid). I am going to attempt to explain how lead acid batteries work and what they need without burying you with a bunch of needless technical data. I have found that battery data will vary somewhat from manufacturer to manufacturer, so I will do my best to boil that data down. This means I may generalize a bit, while staying true to purpose.
The commercial use of the lead acid battery is over 100 years old. The same chemical principal that is being used to store energy is basically the same as our Great Grandparents may have used.
If you can grasp the basics you will have fewer battery problems and will gain greater battery performance, reliability, and longevity. I suggest you read the entire tutorial, however I have indexed all the information for a quick read and easy reference.
A battery is like a piggy bank. If you keep taking out and putting nothing back you soon will have nothing. Present day chassis battery power requirements are huge. Consider today’s vehicle and all the electrical devices that must be supplied. All these electronics require a source of reliable power, and poor battery condition can cause expensive electronic component failure. Did you know that the average auto has 11 pounds of wire in the electrical system? Look at RVs and boats with all the electrical gadgets that require power. It was not long ago when trailers or motor homes had only a single 12-volt house battery. Today it is standard to have two or more house batteries powering inverters up to 4000 watts.
Average battery life has become shorter as energy requirements have increased. Life span depends on usage; 6 months to 48 months, yet only 30% of all batteries actually reach the 48-month mark. You can extend your battery life by hooking it up to a solar charger during the off months.
A Few Basics
Battery HydrometerThe Lead Acid battery is made up of plates, lead, and lead oxide (various other elements are used to change density, hardness, porosity, etc.) with a 35% sulfuric acid and 65% water solution. This solution is called electrolyte, which causes a chemical reaction that produce electrons. When you test a battery with a hydrometer, you are measuring the amount of sulfuric acid in the electrolyte. If your reading is low, that means the chemistry that makes electrons is lacking. So where did the sulfur go? It is resting on the battery plates and when you recharge the battery, the sulfur returns to the electrolyte.
Battery types, Deep Cycle and Starting
Wet Cell, Gel-Cell and Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM)
CCA, CA, AH and RC; what’s that all about?
Selecting and Buying a New Battery
Battery Life and Performance
1. We must think safety when we are working around and with batteries. Remove all jewelry. After all you don’t want to melt your watchband while you are wearing the watch. The hydrogen gas that batteries make when charging is very explosive. We have seen several instances of batteries blowing up and drenching everything in sulfuric acid. That is no fun, and would have been a good time to use those safety goggles that are hanging on the wall. Heck, just break out your disco outfit. Polyester is not affected by Sulfuric Acid, but anything with cotton will be eaten up. If you do not feel the need to make a fashion statement just wear junk clothes, after all Polyester is still out of style. When doing electrical work on vehicles it is best to disconnect the ground cable. Just remember you are messing with corrosive acid, explosive gases and 100’s amps of electrical current.
2. Basically there are two types of lead acid batteries (along with 3 sub categories); The two main types are Starting (cranking), and Deep Cycle (marine/golf cart). The starting battery (SLI starting lights ignition) is designed to deliver quick bursts of energy (such as starting engines) and therefore has a greater plate count. The plates are thinner and have somewhat different material composition. The deep cycle battery has less instant energy, but greater long-term energy delivery. Deep cycle batteries have thicker plates and can survive a number of discharge cycles. Starting batteries should not be used for deep cycle applications because the thinner plates are more prone to warping and pitting when discharged. The so-called Dual Purpose Battery is a compromise between the two types of batteries, though it is better to be more specific if possible.
3. Wet Cell (flooded), Gel Cell, and Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) are various versions of the lead acid battery. The Wet cell comes in two styles; Serviceable and Maintenance free. Both are filled with electrolyte and are basically the same. I prefer one that I can add water to and check the specific gravity of the electrolyte with a hydrometer. The Gel Cell and the AGM batteries are specialty batteries that typically cost twice as much as a premium wet cell. However they store very well and do not tend to sulfate or degrade as easily as wet cell. There is little chance of a hydrogen gas explosion or corrosion when using these batteries; these are the safest lead acid batteries you can use. Gel Cell and some AGM batteries may require a special charging rate. If you want the best,most versatile type, consideration should be given to the AGM battery for applications such as Marine, RV, Solar, Audio, Power Sports and Stand-By Power just to name a few. If you don’t use or operate your equipment daily, AGM batteries will hold their charge better than other types. If you must depend on top-notch battery performance, spend the extra money. Gel Cell batteries still are being sold but AGM batteries are replacing them in most applications. There is a some common confusion regarding AGM batteries because different manufactures call them by different names; some of the more common names are “sealed regulated valve”, “dry cell”, “non spillable”, and “Valve Regulated Lead Acid” batteries. In most cases AGM batteries will give greater life span and greater cycle life than a wet cell battery.
SPECIAL NOTE about Gel Batteries: It is very common for individuals to use the term GEL CELL when referring to sealed, maintenance free batteries, much like one would use Kleenex when referring to facial tissue or “Xerox machine” when referring to a copy machine. Be very careful when specifying a gel cell battery charger, many times we are told by customer they are requiring a charger for a Gel Cell battery and in fact the battery is not a Gel Cell.
Scorpion BatteryAGM: The Absorbed Glass Matt construction allows the electrolyte to be suspended in close proximity with the plates active material. In theory, this enhances both the discharge and recharge efficiency. Common manufacturer applications include high performance engine starting, power sports, deep cycle, solar and storage battery. The larger AGM batteries we sell are typically good deep cycle batteries and they deliver their best life performance if recharged before allowed to drop below the 50% discharge rate. The Scorpion motorcycle batteries we carry are a nice upgrade from your stock flooded battery, and the Odyssey branded batteries are fantastic for holding their static charge over long periods of non use. When Deep Cycle AGM batteries are discharged to a rate of no less than 60% the cycle life will be 300 plus cycles.
GEL: The Gel Cell is similar to the AGM style because the electrolyte is suspended, but different because technically the AGM battery is still considered to be a wet cell. The electrolyte in a Gel Cell has a silica additive that causes it to set up or stiffen. The recharge voltage on this type of cell is lower than the other styles of lead acid battery. This is probably the most sensitive cell in terms of adverse reactions to over-voltage charging. Gel Batteries are best used in VERY DEEP cycle application and may last a bit longer in hot weather applications. If the incorrect battery charger is used on a Gel Cell battery poor performance and premature failure is certain.
4. CCA, CA, AH and RC. What are these all about? These are the standards that most battery companies use to rate the output and capacity of a battery.
Cold cranking amps (CCA) is a measurement of the number of amps a battery can deliver at 0 ° F for 30 seconds and not drop below 7.2 volts. So a high CCA battery rating is especially important in starting battery applications, and in cold weather.This measurement is not particularly important in Deep cycle batteries, though it is the most commonly ‘known’ battery measurement.
CA is cranking amps measured at 32 degrees F. This rating is also called marine cranking amps (MCA). Hot cranking amps (HCA) is seldom used any longer but is measured at 80 ° F.
Reserve Capacity (RC) is a very important rating. This is the number of minutes a fully charged battery at 80 ° F will discharge 25 amps until the battery drops below 10.5 volts.
An amp hour (AH) is a rating usually found on deep cycle batteries. The standard rating is an Amp rating taken for 20 Hours. What this means, say for a 100 AH rated battery is this: Draw from the battery for 20 hours and it will provide a total of 100 amp-hours. That translates to about 5 amps an hour. 5 x 20 = 100. However, it’s very important to know that the total time of discharge and load applied is not a linear relationship. As your load increases, your realized capacity decreases. This means if you discharged that same 100 AH battery by a 100 amp load, it will not give you one hour of runtime. On the contrary, the perceived capacity of the battery will be that of 64 Amp Hours.
5.Battery Maintenance is an important issue. The battery should be cleaned using a baking soda and water solution; a couple of table spoons to a pint of water. Cable connections need to be cleaned and tightened as battery problems are often caused by dirty and loose connections. A serviceable battery needs to have the fluid level checked. Use only mineral free water, Distilled is best as all impurities have been removed, and there is nothing left that could contaminate your cells. Don’t overfill battery cells especially in warmer weather because the natural fluid expansion in hot weather can push excess electrolytes from the battery. To prevent corrosion of cables on top post batteries use a small bead of silicone sealer at the base of the post and place a felt battery washer over it. Coat the washer with high temperature grease or petroleum jelly (Vaseline), then place cable on the post and tighten. Coat the exposed cable end with the grease. Most folks don’t know that just the gases from the battery condensing on metal parts cause most corrosion.
6.Digital Multi-MeterBattery Testing can be done in more than one way. The most accurate method is measurement of specific gravity and battery voltage. To measure specific gravity buy a temperature compensating hydrometer, to measure voltage use a digital D.C. Voltmeter. A quality load tester may be a good purchase if you need to test sealed batteries.
Cheap Car Batteries Birmingham AL 35203
For any of these methods, you must first fully charge the battery and then remove the surface charge. If the battery has been sitting at least several hours (I prefer at least 12 hours) you may begin testing. To remove surface charge the battery must be discharged for several minutes. Using a headlight (high beam) will do the trick. After turning off the light you are ready to test the battery.
State of Charge Specific Gravity Voltage
100% 1.265 12.7 6.3
75% 1.225 12.4 6.2
50% 1.190 12.2 6.1
25% 1.155 12.0 6.0
Discharged 1.120 11.9 6.0
Load testing is yet another way of testing a battery. Load test removes amps from a battery much like starting an engine would. A load tester can be purchased at most auto parts stores. Some battery companies label their battery with the amp load for testing. This number is usually 1/2 of the CCA rating. For instance, a 500CCA battery would load test at 250 amps for 15 seconds. A load test can only be performed if the battery is near or at full charge.
The results of your testing should be as follows:
Hydrometer readings should not vary more than .05 differences between cells.
Digital Voltmeters should read as the voltage is shown in this document. The sealed AGM and Gel-Cell battery voltage (full charged) will be slightly higher in the 12.8 to 12.9 ranges. If you have voltage readings in the 10.5 volts range on a charged battery, that typically indicates a shorted cell.
If you have a maintenance free wet cell, the only ways to test are voltmeter and load test. Any of the maintenance free type batteries that have a built in hydrometer(black/green window) will tell you the condition of 1 cell of 6. You may get a good reading from 1 cell but have a problem with other cells in the battery.
When in doubt about battery testing, call the battery manufacturer. Many batteries sold today have a toll free number to call for help.
7. Selecting a Battery – When buying a new battery I suggest you purchase a battery with the greatest reserve capacity or amp hour rating possible. Of course the physical size, cable hook up, and terminal type must be a consideration. You may want to consider a Gel Cell or an Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) rather than a Wet Cell if the application is in a harsher environment or the battery is not going to receive regular maintenance and charging.
Be sure to purchase the correct type of battery for the job it must do. Remember that engine starting batteries and deep cycle batteries are different. Freshness of a new battery is very important. The longer a battery sits and is not re-charged the more damaging sulfation build up there may be on the plates. Most batteries have a date of manufacture code on them. The month is indicated by a letter ‘A’ being January and a number ‘4’ being 2004. C4 would tell us the battery was manufactured in March 2004. Remember the fresher the better. The letter “i” is not used because it can be confused with #1.
Battery warranties are figured in the favor of battery manufactures. Let’s say you buy a 60-month warranty battery and it lives 41 months. The warranty is pro-rated so when taking the months used against the full retail price of the battery you end up paying about the same money as if you purchased the battery at the sale price. This makes the manufacturer happy. What makes me happy is to exceed the warranty. Let me assure you it can be done.
8. Battery life and performance – Average battery life has become shorter as energy requirements have increased. Two phrases I hear most often are “my battery won’t take a charge, and my battery won’t hold a charge”. Only 30% of batteries sold today reach the 48-month mark. In fact 80% of all battery failure is related to sulfation build-up. This build up occurs when the sulfur molecules in the electrolyte (battery acid) become so deeply discharged that they begin to coat the battery’s lead plates. Before long the plates become so coated that the battery dies. The causes of sulfation are numerous. Let me list some for you.
Batteries sit too long between charges. As little as 24 hours in hot weather and several days in cooler weather.
Battery is stored without some type of energy input.
“Deep cycling” an engine starting battery. Remember these batteries can’t stand deep discharge.
Undercharging of a battery to only 90% of capacity will allow sulfation of the battery using the 10% of battery chemistry not reactivated by the incompleted charging cycle.
Heat of 100 plus F., increases internal discharge. As temperatures increase so does internal discharge. A new fully charged battery left sitting 24 hours a day at 110 degrees F for 30 days would most likely not start an engine.
Low electrolyte level – battery plates exposed to air will immediately sulfate.
Incorrect charging levels and settings. Most cheap battery chargers can do more harm than good. See the section on battery charging.
Cold weather is also hard on the battery. The chemistry does not make the same amount of energy as a warm battery. A deeply discharged battery can freeze solid in sub zero weather.
Parasitic drain is a load put on a battery with the key off. More info on parasitic drain will follow in this document.
There are ways to greatly increase battery life and performance. All the products we sell are targeted to improve performance and battery life.
Battery EqualizerAn example: Let’s say you have “toys”; an ATV, classic car, antique car, boat, Harley, etc. You most likely don’t use these toys 365 days a year as you do your car. Many of these toys are seasonal so they are stored. What happens to the batteries? Most batteries that supply energy to power our toys only last 2 seasons. You must keep these batteries from sulfating or buy new ones. We sell products to prevent and reverse sulfation. The PulseTech products are patented electronic devices that reverse and prevent sulfation. Also Battery Equaliser, a chemical battery additive, has proven itself very effective in improving battery life and performance. Other devices such as Solar Trickle Chargers are a great option for battery maintenance.
Parasitic drain is a load put on a battery with the key off. Most vehicles have clocks, engine management computers, alarm systems, etc. In the case of a boat you may have an automatic bilge pump, radio, GPS, etc. These devices may all be operating without the engine running. You may have parasitic loads caused by a short in the electrical system. If you are always having dead battery problems most likely the parasitic drain is excessive. The constant low or dead battery caused by excessive parasitic energy drain will dramatically shorten battery life. If this is a problem you are having, check out the Priority Start and Marine Priority Start to prevent dead batteries before they happen. This special computer switch will turn off your engine start battery before all the starting energy is drained. This technology will prevent you from deep cycling your starting battery.
9.Battery Tender Plus Battery Charging – Remember you must put back the energy you use immediately. If you don’t the battery sulfates and that affects performance and longevity. The alternator is a battery charger. It works well if the battery is not deeply discharged. The alternator tends to overcharge batteries that are very low and the overcharge can damage batteries. In fact an engine starting battery on average has only about 10 deep cycles available when recharged by an alternator. Batteries like to be charged in a certain way, especially when they have been deeply discharged. This type of charging is called 3 step regulated charging. Please note that only special SMART BATTERY CHARGERS using computer technology can perform 3 step charging techniques. You don’t find these types of chargers in parts stores and Wal-Marts. The first step is bulk charging where up to 80% of the battery energy capacity is replaced by the charger at the maximum voltage and current amp rating of the charger. When the battery voltage reaches 14.4 volts this begins the absorption charge step. This is where the voltage is held at a constant 14.4 volts and the current (amps) declines until the battery is 98% charged. Next comes the Float Step. This is a regulated voltage of not more than 13.4 volts and usually less than 1 amp of current. This in time will bring the battery to 100% charged or close to it. The float charge will not boil or heat batteries but will maintain the batteries at 100% readiness and prevent cycling during long term inactivity. Some Gel Cell and AGM batteries may require special settings or chargers.
10. Battery Do’s
Think Safety First.
Do read entire tutorial
Do regular inspection and maintenance especially in hot weather.
Do recharge batteries immediately after discharge.
Do buy the highest RC reserve capacity or AH amp hour battery that will fit your configuration.
11. Battery Don’ts
Don’t forget safety first.
Don’t add new electrolyte (acid).
Don’t use unregulated high output battery chargers to charge batteries.
Don’t place your equipment and toys into storage without some type of device to keep the battery charged.
Don’t disconnect battery cables while the engine is running (your battery acts as a filter).
Don’t put off recharging batteries.
Don’t add tap water as it may contain minerals that will contaminate the electrolyte.
Don’t discharge a battery any deeper than you possibly have to.
Don’t let a battery get hot to the touch and boil violently when charging.
Don’t mix size and types of batteries.
There are many points and details I have not written about because I wanted to keep this as short and simple as possible. Further information can be found at the links below. If you are aware of sites with good battery maintenance information please let me know.
Top suggestions for changing a auto battery and finding the right cars and truck battery charger
Changing your automobile battery is straightforward but ensure you actually need a new battery first, you could just need a charger …
Automobile batteries don’t last for life, specifically with the enhanced lots placed on them by the variety of electrical devices in modern vehicles.
Batteries not simply need to begin your automobile, and also run things like headlamps, heaters and also wipers ; nowadays, they’re called on to feed power to highly innovative on-board computer systems, as well as supply power to everything from the environment control system as well as integrated sat-nav to the cellphone or various other accessories you connect right into the 12V outlet. And in addition to that, they’re anticipated to maintain shooting the engine over and over again in traffic when the fuel-saving stop/start system on the most recent vehicles kicks in.
Cheap Car Batteries Birmingham AL 35203 – Battery
It’s not unusual, after that, that level vehicle batteries are one of the major reasons for callouts to failure operators. Yet a brand-new battery doesn’t have to be a distress acquisition; spot the indicators of failing– from dim indoor lights to the engine turning over extremely gradually– as well as you can transform it on your own before you’re left stranded on your driveway, in a parking lot, or even worse.
Bear in mind as well that vehicle electrical contractors and garages can inspect the condition of your car’s battery really merely, so it deserves making sure a damaged battery is where the trouble really exists.
Selecting the ideal battery for your vehicle
To begin with, you have to locate the ideal battery for your vehicle; a glance at the proprietor’s guidebook will certainly aid right here, while the internet is a important source. Numerous suppliers’ websites will certainly permit you to enter your registration number and after that tell you which battery is right. And also, if you go shopping around online, you’ll have a great chance of finding a terrific offer as well as you will not require to lug a hefty battery house from the accessory shop or garage.
Criterion lead-acid batteries are still without a doubt the most common, with diesel cars and trucks usually calling for extra effective variations, while models with stop/start innovation often tend to utilize enhanced cyclic mat (ECM) or taken in glass floor covering (AGM) batteries. Whatever type your automobile was provided with initially, you ought to change like with like; examine the handbook if you’re unsure.
Prior to you detach your stopping working old battery, bear in mind that it powers different functions in the auto, which are likely to be reset. Do you have a code for the stereo? You may need this to use it once again when you connect the new battery
Disconnecting your old battery
The majority of batteries are located under the bonnet, although some are under the footwell or in the boot. Wherever it is, make a cautious note of which terminal is which as well as disconnect the unfavorable incurable (–). Then disconnect the favorable (+) incurable, get rid of any type of clips holding the battery in position and also slide it out of its plastic cage. Beware; batteries are hefty and also troublesome , as well as the old one should be dealt with at your regional council reusing facility.
Glide the new battery right into the cage and turn around the process, connecting the positive terminal initially, after that the unfavorable. You’ll currently should reset any kind of electricals inside the automobile– from clocks to stereo to sat-nav. If your vehicle has stop/start, the battery will need to be tuned with the on-board computer, which is why fitting an ECM or AGM battery is most likely a work for a specialist.
Look after your automobile battery.
Since you’ve sprinkled out on a new battery, you intend to shield your investment, as well as the latest battery chargers have advanced programmes to preserve the degree of charge. They’re specifically helpful if you only use your cars and truck moderately– classic automobile owners vow by these items.
These smart chargers differ the existing they pump into the battery to lengthen its life. They could also be left connected to a cars and truck for extended periods of time, and simply top the battery up delicately. Plus, if your battery is revealing indications of being on its last legs, among these products could be worth a try first; a clever charger can bring a passing away battery back to life.
Emergency situation dive starting
Another convenient investment is a jump start pack. These work like the standard set of jump leads you run from your vehicle to another automobile’s battery to get you begun if you’ve left your lights on all night by crash. The distinction is, you do not need another automobile.
Simply bill up the jump start pack, connect the result in the right terminals on your battery, as well as they’ll supply a increase to obtain your auto started. The most effective systems could jump petrol automobiles with engines as much as 3.0 litres in capability, and also promise multiple beginnings prior to they require recharging. They come in handy gadgets to keep in the boot.
Off, you need to locate the best battery for your vehicle; a quick appearance at the proprietor’s guidebook will certainly aid here, while the web is a useful resource. If your car has actually stop/start, the battery will need to be tuned with the on-board computer system, which is why suitable an ECM or AGM battery is possibly a job for a specialist.
And also, if your battery is revealing indications of being on its last legs, one of these items may be worth a try initially; a wise battery charger could bring a passing away battery back to life.
These job like the traditional set of jump leads you run from your cars and truck to one more lorry’s battery to get you started if you have actually left your lights on all night by accident. Just charge up the dive start pack, attach the leads to the proper terminals on your battery, and they’ll supply a increase to obtain your auto started.
Cheap Car Batteries Birmingham AL 35203
Part of the American dream is the style of the old West, which amazingly only lasted about 20 years or so, but the idea of the rugged pioneering individualism hasn’t really diminished right up to the present day. The idea of a powerful horse that was instrumental in keeping you out of harm’s way runs deep in the psyche. No surprise then that one of the icons of US travel if called the Mustang, made by Ford, which is another icon in it’s own right. No other car says so much about the obsession with growling engine power and downright attitude, but it’s certainly not only in the golden years of the 60s and 70s that these cars were in demand – read on ….
The New Ford Mustang Proves Muscle Cars Aren’t Dead
Automakers like Ford, Chevy and Dodge have found they can achieve blazing performance and still meet higher environmental standards, writes Dan Neil. Get ready to burn rubber responsibly
IT WASN’T SUPPOSED to be this way. Tighter carbon-emission standards around the world and higher fuel-economy rules in the U.S. were to mean the end of muscle cars, or at least affordable ones. But, pleasant surprise, cars have actually gotten stronger, quicker, faster. Overall, performance is cheaper, more efficient and reliable than ever. It’s the Golden Age of Horsepower, and the horses are eating diet hay.
Do you like acceleration, Johnny? Dodge will sell you a Challenger SRT Hellcat with 707 hp and an eight-speed transmission, a car that will lay down 11-second quarter-mile passes until they turn the track’s floodlights off. A roaring Mopar fever dream. Chevrolet purveys a 580-hp Camaro ZL1 with Recaro seats, six-speed manual and a clutch, offering a top speed of 184 mph. Some exotic European brands are selling “megawatt” cars, with engine outputs of more than 1,341 hp.
A Brief History of the Pony
A look at the Ford Mustang over the last half century [shows the following)] …
All of these cars and engines have one thing in common: forced induction. Instead of breathing at atmospheric pressure like the rest of us, these engines are force-fed air through spooling, high-velocity turbines, either turbochargers or superchargers. Combustion-wise, the effect is like turning a leaf blower on a bonfire.
From Ford to Ferrari, Audi to Volvo, auto makers are being obliged to move to smaller, forced-induction engines to make power while still lowering emissions. As they do, the character, the sinew, even the sound of performance is changing. And nowhere is the effect more striking than in the Ford Mustang, with its 2.3-liter EcoBoost engine. It’s kind of the New Fast.
A latte salute might be in order. The 2015 model represents the sixth generation of Dearborn’s beloved Pony Car and marks the 50th anniversary of America’s budget-style champion (for reference, the base price of an EcoBoost Fastback, $25,170, is a little more than tenfold the face value of what a 1965 Fastback sold for). On a good year Ford will sell 80,000 to 90,000 coupes and convertibles, with 4-, 6-, and 8-cylinder engines, and final assembly in Flat Rock, Mich. The Mustang is bedrock American car culture, from East L.A. to the flatlands of Minnesota.
Ford will export the cars to the demanding European market, and for once, the Mustang is a thoroughly modern automobile. The latest iteration is at last fitted with an independent rear suspension, which Mustang engineers resisted, in favor of a tough, simple live axle design that was good for drag racing (and cheaper, too).
While the Mustang is available with a choice of three engines—including the base 300-hp V6 and a big-brute 435-hp V8—the engine Ford would most like you to take seriously is the thrifty “EcoBoost,” a turbocharged 4 cylinder displacing a mere 2.3 liters, less than half the size of the V8.
A four-banger in a muscle car? Well, a state-of-the-art four-banger—all aluminum, boosted to the stars (18 psi), hugely torquey, with specific power of 135 hp per liter. But still.
This might be a communications challenge. The muscle-car audience is, by its nature, not impressed with nuance. The optics of switching from eight cylinders to four are not intuitive, not quite fully American.
‘Automakers are moving to smaller, forced-induction engines to make power while still lowering emissions.’
To be clear, in the 50-year history of Mustang, Ford made millions of 4-cylinder Mustangs, starting with the Mustang II redesign of 1974. There was even a brief, interesting experiment with hi-po turbo fours in the 1980s. But for the most part four-cylinder Mustangs were fairly lame ponies, ultimately sold into rental fleet servitude. The EcoBoost is offered as the smart budget-performance option, and it has numbers to back it up: 310 hp and 320 pound-feet of torque.
Is that a lot? Historically, it’s huge. Let’s flip open the Big Book of Mustang History and put our finger on… Here we go: The 1971 Boss 351’s “Cleveland” four-barrel V8 put out 330 All-American horsepower, 370 pound-feet of torque, and all the hydrocarbons you could choke on.
This was one of the era’s last monster motors, a piston-powered rock god, a hand-built high-comp 5.7-liter V8 with a big Holley carb, solid-lifter cam, Magnafluxed heads, the works. A four-speed Hurst shifter and 3.91:1 Traction-Lok rear end helped put the Boss 351’s power to the ground in respectable fashion: 0-60 mph in 5.6 seconds and a quarter-mile elapsed-time of 13.9 seconds. All in all, a ground-shaking, tire-baking bit of American mechanical culture, that made an impression on millions.
The gas-sipping Mustang EcoBoost is exactly as quick as beastly Boss 351, within the same 0-60 mph and the quarter-mile times, but using half the number of cylinders and delivering roughly three times the fuel economy (21/32/25 mpg, city/ highway/ combined). This despite the fact that the new Mustang is obliged to carry hundreds of pounds more air bags, computers, catalytic converters and crash structures than the Boss 351 (total=0).
The EcoBoost is really the grass-roots motor-sports choice: It weighs 181 pounds less than the V-8 GT, and most of that weight loss is in the front of the car, improving the weight distribution and handling. Turbos are also easily hacked for more power. (Car guys care about such things).
If you’re comparing the new car with icons of the 1960s, all things are not equal, of course. Modern cars are usually quite a bit heavier. But everything else on a modern car is infinitely better: steering, breaking, chassis control. The new Mustang EcoBoost, shod with 19-inch summer radials as part of the performance package, pulls .96g in lateral acceleration, a figure that would have been unthinkable on bias-ply or early radial tires. Braking? Get a load of the Brembos.
Another quality of the New Fast: accessibility. Want to go drag racing? Among the Mustang’s computer-aided features (on the GT) is “Line Lock,” which allows drivers to easily lock the front wheels and spin up the rear tires to generate clouds of tire smoke. It also works in church parking lots.
If you don’t have the time, or tires, to perfect your hole shot down at the drag strip, the Launch Control feature will be happy to execute one for you.
Conclusion: The New Fast is way better than the Old Fast, by the clock, the dyno and the digital numbers at the gas pump. For that you can tip the cap to Ford’s multitude of engineers and designers around the world, trying to keep their jobs.
Alas, nothing comes free. Thanks to turbocharging, the New Fast doesn’t sound quite as satisfying as the Old Fast. Soon to be heard only in collective memory—or at Mustang rallies—is the percussive cadence of a free-breathing V8 at idle, the cold chirr of valve ware, the masculine howl at redline.
In the thermodynamics, these sounds represent the extravagance of lost energy. Turbochargers capture that energy but smother the wondrous, primal sound.
As for the Mustang, you can’t help but admire the symmetry. Fifty years ago it was launched as an affordable, sporty compact with great style and good mileage. The machine is radically different, but the pony is still alive and kicking.
So there you have, not dead and not forgotten. Iconic brands like this , Harley Davidson, Indian and others, will just go on and on, bringing out new models with ever more features that will always be in demand. There is an adage in the auto industry that hoes like this – this year’s luxury features becomes next year’s standard features, which about sizes it up? Of course, there are greater and greater challenges for these gas guzzlers, but it seems that the big boys are determined to get as much mileage out of their muscle vehicles as they can before electric cars are all there is on the road.
OK, it’s got no wheels but it can have balls, depending on what you buy. If you’ve been under a rock for the past 10 years you might have missed the surge of interest in personal hovercraft among people looking for something a little different. So what is thing – does it fly, or move over the ground? Well, it moves for sure, but it can’t be called a plane or a boat, nor is it an automobile. It’s real name is Air Cushioned Craft (ACV) and they started out as great big passenger craft, made famous by zipping across the British Channel for few years. Well, they got smaller and they’ve found a whole lot of other uses, not the least of which is racing – check out the video below:
As you might imagine, these babies aren’t exactly built the same. From the first glance, they are all skirt and engine, if you know what I mean, but the skirt is nothing but an enclosure to keep in the air pressure generated by the fan behind the driver (pilot, operator?) Like any racing vehicle, power to weight ratio is vital and small personal racing hovercraft are no different, in fact it’s probably more critical. The hull is usually made from resin impregnated glass fiber – really rigid and light, but somewhat fragile. Hit a rock and bingo, bang goes your hull and the race.
They normally have just one engine for thrust and lift and these two stroke high revving engines are mostly aluminum cased. Everything else is stripped out so that it’s learn and mean. These craft tend to have quite a lot of accidents, as stopping and turning are definitely not there strong points – the driver has to throw his weight from side to side to turn, and stopping is an art in itself. After all, there’s no wheels on the ground, or propeller in the water to drag it to a stop. I guess in an emergency, you just turn off the fan and let the bottom of the hull drag across the ground – ouch! Read article: https://www.evernote.com/shard/s404/sh/922631a6-6aca-4597-ab36-2ea5350e85ea/cbbe11921bae64b33525b4b918d41839
An ordinary leisure type hovercraft can cruise at around 45kmh – see this site, but a Formula one ACV will go up to 80kmh, so it isn’t slow, particularly when the operator’s backside is so close to the ground, or should I say ‘surface’, because they can literally float over any flat terrain. I’m reliably informed that once you try it, you’re just hooked. Nothing else compares with the thrill of floating away from the competition (hopefully)!
Many years ago I was cruising along on my big (so I though) generic Japanese V-twin and happened to stop at a traffic light in town. Posing away in the sunshine, I felt a rumbling in the ground, in my imagination like a herd of buffalo must have sounded stampeding across the plains in the early days of the settlers. As the rumbling noise reached a subdued crescendo (does that even make sense?), a shiny monster bristling with chrome and power sidled up beside me. What the hell!
I turned to look and I couldn’t really hold back my awe, though I was desperately trying to be cool and all. The machine was a Boss Hoss, which is the most powerful production bike to ever hit the streets. The huge frame holds a Chevrolet Water cooled V8 engine with a capacity of 502 cubic inches, equating around 8,200 cc – yessir! I didn’t actually know this, but asked what he had between his legs, if you know what I mean.
The guy didn’t seem arrogant – he didn’t have to be, he knew he had the coolest ride around and was quite happy to talk about it. Yes, it is a beast but it’s not what you might think, it isn’t a truck on two wheel, by any means, but well balance monster that is a luxury ride for those with enough balls to get on one! Questions fill the mind, like ‘What if it falls over?’ and ‘What IS the top speed?’ These are exactly the first questions I asked him, because it just looks so heavy and so powerful that it’s speed must be impressive.
The Boss Hoss weighs in a 550kg (there’s a less powerful brother, if you’re intimidated) so how on earth would you get it upright if you dropped it? Well, the fact is that when it’s moving even at low speeds the balance is perfect, and coupled with the very low center of gravity makes for confident manoeuvering. Even if you overbalance while taking it off the stand, the bike is designed not to drop sideways all the way, which is a relief – you’d never get it back upright without a whole team of men.
It’s only got two gears forward and one reverse, which is a godsend as it saves walking it back out of parking. I’m not sure what it’s turning circle is, but you don’t want to be taking chances leaning this big boy over, so reverse is good. Top speed in first gear is 190kmh, and it won’t let you change up to second if you’re traveling less than 80kmh. It’s no slouch away from the starting blocks either – with the throttle fully open (if you dare give it a fistful) you can expect to reach 100kmh in just 3.5 seconds. By comparison, a Formula One (petrol) will do the same in 2.2 seconds.
Interestingly enough, the latest electric racing car will speed to 100kmh in 1.785 seconds, just one indication of amazing things to come in the field of muscle transports and morot sport in general. It’s easy to see that the whole arena will be dominated by electric vehicles in the near future. What about an electric Boss Hoss? You can bet it’s on it’s way.
Go on, admit it – whatever kind of guy or gal you are (or pretend to be), just admit that you’d like to be behind the wheel, handlebars or joystick of a supercharged vehicle of some kind flashing pst the opposition. Oh yes, there always has to be the opposition – it’s just life.
When I was a kid, older friends had motorbikes in our neighborhood, it was all the rage. Unfortunately, my parents wouldn’t allow me to have one, just for the little fact that several people around the village had died while riding one. Wrapped in my teenage stupor and desire, this hardly seemed much a reason to stop anyone riding, but there we are – I guess I was stupid.
Years later, I bought a 750 Honda Shadow right out of the blue! I didn’t mean to – I went into a showroom, it was there in red, cream and glistening chrome and came out with it, or more correctly, I ordered it to be delivered because, surprise, surprise, I didn’t know how to ride one! After some practice, I was off and it crossed my mind that maybe it was a good thing that I didn’t have one when I was younger. It got up to 100mph in exhilarating style and it fills you with false confidence. See here: http://leisurehovercraft.deviantart.com/
Having ridden almost everything from of personal transports that’s out there, this blog will reflect my attitude and continuing fascination with all things driven my engines, whether gas, turbine or electric.
The articles below have some very useful info about Government Car Auctions – where to find them, how it all works and best of all how to drive away a car with massive savings! Before buying a new expensive car, consider buying your next vehicle at an auction run by a government agency:
10 Things You Didn’t Know About Buying Cars at Auction
All over the U.S., you can find car dealer auctions open to the public. That means buying cars at auction prices is an option for just about anyone, even if you don’t have a dealer’s license. If you’re interested in buying cars at wholesale prices, take a look at our car auction guide to find out how to buy the car you want at auction, just like a dealer.
Car Auctions for Dealers Only
Car dealer auctions are open only to those with a dealer license issued by the state. You can get your own dealer license if you wish, but the process can be long and difficult. Each state has its own set of requirements for car dealer licensing, usually with a set number of cars you must buy and sell each year to qualify.
Buying, modifying and reselling cars bought at car dealer auctions can turn you a tidy profit. But if you only plan on buying cars for yourself, it’s probably best to buy from auctions that are open to the public instead.
Car Auctions Open to the Public
Popular Mechanics reports there are two major categories of car auctions open to the public, government car auctions and public car auctions:
Government or police auctions: These include county and city vehicles like buses, police cruisers, utility trucks and more. These auctions also sell impound cars that have been confiscated because of traffic violations and crime. Popular Mechanics warns that you will face expert competition from used car dealers, taxi companies, exporters and others who know mechanics well and understand the value of the vehicles on the block.
Public car auctions: These may include repossessed vehicles from banks, wholesale lots of cars, flood junkers, bottom-of-the-barrel trade-ins and sometimes high-end sports cars and SUVs. The quality and reliability of the stock varies from auction to auction, so be prepared to do your homework. Because these auctions have become more popular since the economic downturn, competition for the best deals is fierce. In fact, you may end up paying more than market price if you don’t take care not to overbid.
Ten Things You Should Know When Buying Cars at Auction
Be careful. This is where unsalable cars go to die. As Edmunds.com puts it, “If a vehicle has been traded in, leased, repossessed or totaled, it will find itself among the nearly 9 million vehicles that are purchased each year in an auto auction.” That doesn’t mean every car on the auction lot is junk. It just means lemons are out there, so be suitably suspicious and thorough in your inspection.
You will need cash or an approved loan, if your bid wins. If you plan to pay with a loan you have already secured from your bank, be prepared to cover a deposit once your bid wins. Find out in advance which credit cards are acceptable for this purpose. There will also be taxes, title and registration fees. If you’re financing the purchase of your car, you’ll likely be required to carry collision and/or comprehensive insurance by the lending agency. So, it’s probably also a good idea to talk to an independent Trusted Choice® agent to help you find car insurance quotes before you buy. Independent agents work with several insurers, and can comparison shop for you, for free.
Everything shines. Cars are often touched up, buffed and polished to a sheen for auction. This does not guarantee a solid car. Always check the car history, and see if VINs match between the dash, door and other points of identification.
Sellers may hide problems. There are all kinds of masks and foils that can make a faulty engine seem clean and sound. If you don’t know the tricks that sellers may use to hide trouble, bring a friend who does or stick to used car dealerships. There are no guarantees or warranties at public auctions.
Buy Repossessed Cars Downey CA 90241 – Banks own the best inventory at the best prices, in general. Edmunds.com advises that these are the vehicles to look for at public auction. They are usually repossessed cars and trucks that the lender just wants to sell at a decent price to recoup losses. Make sure it is a reasonably well maintained car and that the interior is in good order, as these are often problem areas for repo cars.
Beware the used car dealers selling at auction. Most used car dealers prefer to sell to customers, other dealers and dealer auctions. If a car is too far gone to sell in any of those ways, they resort to the public auction. Take a second, third and fourth look at used car dealer offerings at public auction. Things may not be what they seem.
This will get kind of crazy. Former auctioneer Steve Lang calls it “capitalism in its purest form.” Car auctions move fast and carry a lot of intensity. It can be easy to feel rushed and pressured to make a decision, so be prepared to tell yourself to slow down if you feel unsure about a vehicle. It’s better to walk away and buy another day than to get a clunker you can’t sell.
Limit yourself before the bidding starts and stick to it. Paul Duchene writes for Car and Driver, “Set your top price and don’t go above it. Do not visit the bar; do not go with a new girlfriend or a college buddy.” You need all your wits about you and not an ounce of pride to cloud your judgment.
Cars will be shown in a set order, so arrive early and figure out when your favorite will be on the block. You can usually get a copy of the showing list when you check in. If you arrive late, you may not have a chance to inspect the car you’re interested in buying at the auction.
Leave room in your budget for shipping if you are buying out of state or far from home. The last thing you need is a cross-country trip in an unproven vehicle and a breakdown somewhere remote and expensive.
Are Car Auctions a Good Place To Buy?
That depends entirely on your mechanical knowledge, your willingness to do research and your luck. Auctioneer Steve Lang observes, “From a $200 Volkswagen to a $200,000 Ferrari, I have personally seen hundreds of thousands of deals come together to the future joy of one party – or the long-term sorrow of another.”
With the right preparation and a discerning eye, you could drive home in the best steal of your life. Just be aware that for all the deals available at car auctions open to the public, many lemons could be lurking as well.
Have you heard of the salvation army vehicle auction? It is among the Salvation Army’s methods of raising funds for their social improvement endeavors. This is their method of telling you to help and donate make a difference in another person’s life.
The Redemption Army is an international non-profit charitable organization that is based upon the ministry of service to individuals of the world. Their work is based upon God’s love so if you do business with them you make sure to get the fairest trade for your contributions.
These non monetary donations can probably be a few hectares of your land or if you don’t have any to spare, then you could definitely contribute your vehicle. It is after all for a excellent cause and you actually do get something out of it.
These contributions are tax deductible so you in fact share in the organizations gain. You get to have somebody offer your vehicle for you in the redemption army automobile auction and you get your sweet tax reduction; now isn’t that a good offer?
You can likewise get that sense of achievement knowing that exactly what you did changed someone’s life. The earnings go to the company’s rehab program in your area. The little act of donating your automobile will give somebody a brand-new possibility at life and this will be a likelihood since their growth and rehab will be under the guidance of the charitable organization.
The car you donated may have been an old friend that has actually been your companion for several great years and you wish to offer her a excellent opportunity at a brand name new life. It might be an over emotional method of looking at it, however these vehicles do get sold at the salvation army automobile auction to owners who want them and hopefully will love them the method you did.
There are 2 ways a individual can contribute and yet acquire something at the exact same time. If you are the cars and truck donor, one is. You get the fulfillment of providing away something in exchange for a better life for someone else; plus you also get the reward of tax reduction. Then 2, if you win the quote at the auction then you get to have your cars and truck at a great bargain.
Head on over to the resource below for information on the redemption army automobile auction if you want to donate a cars and truck or discover one at a bargain.
Make brand-new discoveries and find out more useful pointers about taken vehicle auctions such as where to discover such auctions near your house and ways to get great imagine your vehicle deals.
GSA Auctions Can Produce Cheap Vehicle Deals for Buyers
The majority of most likely you go to your closest or trusted vehicle dealer, ask for recommendations from friends and family, or check out the listings in Craigslist or eBay. Do you understand that you can in fact get a great car for an extremely cheap cost at an auction? To be more particular, you can sign up with a General Providers Administration (GSA) auction.
It performs a variety of functions, but they relate to procurement and management of a variety of properties. While that might sound easy to you, it really isn’t. To give you an concept on how important the firm is, know that it has a budget plan of more than $26 billion each year and is composed of over 10,000 employees! What’s Their Service with Auctions? When it comes to auctions is that the federal government has no service in participating in it, one of the most typical mistaken beliefs. On the contrary, some of the most significant auction programs are sponsored or organized by the federal government itself. There are numerous reasons GSA auctions are advantageous especially for those who are seeking top quality second-hand automobiles: They have a very huge stock of lorries.
All agencies in the government need lorries, which may range from sedans that are transformed into patrol car, airplanes, vans, and trucks . These cars are more likely brand-new. Can you envision the government investing loan on lorries that may not be dependable in the very first location? For this factor, they need to decommission or alter their old systems after a couple of years. They are also most likely to be appropriately maintained. The government designates a excellent quantity of cash for the maintenance of the lorries not only to make them last longer but to also ensure the security of the users. They have tidy titles. Obviously, the federal government will never ever use automobiles that may have unclear or missing titles, more so keep automobiles that may be branded as lemon, junk, or salvage.
GSA auctions are offered to the public, providing you a terrific access to some of the best ownerships of the federal government. They might be scheduled in a local level, so do not forget to visit your state’s main website or GSA website for information on when the auctions will be. Another alternative is to subscribe to online auction listings that can create an extensive number of auctions that may be taking place within your area, including GSA auctions.
Have you heard of the salvation army auto auction? Two, if you win the quote at the auction then you get to have your vehicle at a excellent deal.
Do you know that you can really get a terrific automobile for an incredibly low-cost cost at an auction? There are lots of reasons why GSA auctions are beneficial particularly for those who are seeking top quality pre-owned automobiles: They have a extremely substantial stock of cars.
Another option is to subscribe to online auction listings that can produce an extensive number of auctions that may be occurring within your location, including GSA auctions.